Salerno lies in the northern side of the harmonious gulf surrounded by a beautiful hilly landscape. Its origin dates back to the 4th Century BC. During the 6th Century the Castle of Arechi was built, which still stands today and commands a great view over the town.
Salerno contains a large number of churches, many of which have been splendidly conserved over the years and should be visited. The old centre of the town with its Cathedral in honour of St.Matthew, the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of Ceramics and the Museum of the Medical School issued in 1811.
The Gulf of Salerno offers a continually fascinating mixture of sights and sounds - almost a mini-Naples. It has the Beautiful Old Town, which took its name from the salty sea ('sal') and the river Irno which lies to the East. Its gift to the Middle Ages was its school of medicine, the Civitas Hippocratica, which endured for over a thousand years and reached its Zenith in the 12th Century. The town of Salerno was badly damaged in the Second World War when the Allies landed from the seaward in 1943.
It is possible to sail to Agropoli and visit the nearby Paestum, which is said to offer the finest Greek Architecture in Italy. The ruins of the town have stood in majestic solitude for over a thousand years.